Munich Agreement Upsc

The Munich Agreement (Czech: Mnichovska dohoda); in Slovak: Mnechovska dohoda; in German: Munchner Abkommen) or Munchner Verrat (Czech: Mnichovska zrada; The Slovak: Mnechovska zrada) was an agreement reached on 30 September 1938 in Munich by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the Third French Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. It granted Germany the “transfer of the German territory of the Sudetenland” from Czechoslovakia. [1] Most of Europe celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing the annexation of the Sudetenland by Nazi Germany, a region of Western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mainly German-speaking. Hitler declared that this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to lie between war and appeasement. During the Second World War, British Prime Minister Churchill, who opposed the agreement when it was signed, decided not to abide by the terms of the post-war agreement and to bring the Sudetenland back to post-war Czechoslovakia. On August 5, 1942, Foreign Minister Anthony Eden sent to Jan Masaryk: Czechoslovakia was informed by Great Britain and France that it could either oppose Nazi Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations. The Czechoslovakian government single-purposely acknowledged the desperation of the fight against the Nazis, reluctantly capitulated (30 September) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The colony gave Germany, from 10 October, the Sudetenland and de facto control of the rest of Czechoslovakia as long as Hitler promised not to go any further. On 30 September, after some time off, Chamberlain went to Hitler`s house and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After Hitler`s interpreter translated it for him, he was glad to have accepted it. The slogan “Above us, without us!” (Czech: O n`s bez n`s!) sums up the feelings of the Czechoslovakian population (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement.

[Citation required] On its way to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state was renamed) lost its reasonable border with Germany and its fortifications. Without it, its independence became more nominal than more real. The agreement also caused Czechoslovakia to lose 70% of its steel industry, 70% of its electricity and 3.5 million citizens to Germany. [61] The Sudeten Germans celebrated what they saw as their liberation. The impending war, it seemed, had been averted. In the spring of 1938, Hitler openly began to support calls from German spokesmen living in the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia for closer relations with Germany. Hitler had recently annexed Austria to Germany and the conquest of Czechoslovakia was the next step in his plan to create a “Greater Germany”. The Czechoslovakian government hoped that Britain and France would help in the event of a German invasion, but British Prime Minister Chamberlain tried to avoid war. He made two trips to Germany in September and offered favorable agreements to Hitler, but Fuhrer responded to his demands.